Publications Directory

Publications Directory

Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old
Laura Kwong, Ayse Ercumen, Amy Pickering, Leanne Unicomb, Jenna Davis, Stephen Luby

Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We found that both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher for Bangladeshi compared to U.S. children.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Saturday, June 4, 2016 Visit Website
Disgust, Shame, and Soapy Water: Tests of Novel Interventions to Promote Safe Water and Hygiene

Study of residents of slum compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh finds neither a traditional, health-based message nor a new disgust-and-shame message led to high levels of chlorination during a free trial, nor to high willingness to pay for the chlorine at the end of the free trial. Provision of low-cost hand-washing facilities did increase hand washing, although the effect size was modest.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Wednesday, April 6, 2016 Visit Website
Field Trial of an Automated Batch Chlorinator System at Shared Water Points in an Urban Community of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Nuhu Amin, Yoshika S. Crider, Leanne Unicomb, Kishor K. Das, Partha Sarathi Gope, Zahid Hayat Mahmud, M Sirajul Islam, Jenna Davis, Stephen Luby, Amy Pickering

Research shows that a chlorinator that operates without electricity or moving parts kept chlorine and E. coli concentrations low in household stored drinking water.

WASH and Development South Asia Saturday, February 6, 2016 Visit Website
Hand-to-mouth contacts result in greater ingestion of feces than dietary water consumption in Tanzania: A quantitative fecal exposure assessment model
Mia Mattioli, Jenna Davis, Ali Boehm

Research model results show that Tanzanian children ingest a significantly greater amount of feces each day from hand-to-mouth contacts than from drinking water, which may help elucidate why interventions focused on water without also addressing hygiene often see little to no effect on reported incidence of diarrhea.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Tuesday, January 5, 2016 Visit Website
Oceans in Peril: Grand Challenges in Applied Water Quality Research for the 21st Century
Ali Boehm, Niveen Ismail, Lauren Sassoubre, Elizabeth Andruszkiewicz

Researchers describe ocean threats due to microbial, nutrient, chemical, and plastic pollution in addition to declining biodiversity and describe fundamental and applied research needed to mitigate the threats. Among the research needs: monitoring, fate and transport studies, modeling, innovative natural and engineered treatment systems, and toxicity and health studies.

WASH and Development Other Friday, December 18, 2015 Visit Website
Addressing Sanitation Services in Dense Urban Slums: A Container-Based Model
Kory Russel, Sebastien Tilmans, Rachel Sklar, Leah Page, Sasha Kramer, Daniel Tillias, Jenna Davis

Research findings indicate that Container-Based Sanitation can dramatically improve management of waste in otherwise hard-to-serve areas of developing countries while satisfying residents’ desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services.

Sustainable Service Models Latin America/Caribbean Friday, October 23, 2015
Better Sanitation without Subsidies: New Research Shows Childhood Stunting Diminishes With Community-Led Promotion of Latrines
Amy Pickering, Maria Laura Alzua, Carolina Lopez, Habiba Djebbari, Massa Coulibaly, Nicolas Osbert

This research brief is based on an analysis of a rural sanitation intervention trial in sub-Saharan Africa, and provides insights for decision-makers seeking to address sanitation development goals.

Expanding Access Sub-Saharan Africa Tuesday, October 20, 2015
Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates
Mi T. Nguyen, Justin T. Jasper, Ali Boehm, Kara Nelson

A pilot-scale open-water unit process wetland was monitored for one year and found to be effective in enhancing sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Differences in sunlight inactivation rates observed between pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci, as well as between lab-cultured and indigenous wastewater bacteria highlight the challenges of using FIB as model organisms for actual pathogens in natural sunlit environments.

Water, Sanitation and Health North America Thursday, October 15, 2015 Visit Website
Effect of a community-led sanitation intervention on child diarrhoea and child growth in rural Mali: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
Amy Pickering, Habiba Djebbari, Carolina Lopez, Massa Coulibaly, Maria Laura Alzua

New research published in The Lancet Global Health documents the first scientific trial to show that child growth improved when communities in the Republic of Mali participated in a community-led sanitation program. The research is co-authored by Amy Pickering, research associate with Stanford’s department of civil and environmental engineering.

Expanding Access , Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Tuesday, October 13, 2015 Visit Website
Feasibility and effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in an urban endemic setting in Bangladesh: a cluster randomised open-label trial
Firdausi Qadri, Mohammad Ali, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Amit Saha, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Yasmin A Begum, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Mohiul Islam Chowdhury, Md Jasim Uddin, Jahangir A M Khan, Atique Iqbal Chowdhury, Anisur Rahman, Shah Alam Siddique, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Afroza Akter, Arifuzzaman Khan, Young Ae You, Ashraf Uddin Siddik, Nirod Chandra Saha, Alamgir Kabir, Baizid Khoorshid Riaz, Shwapon Kumar Biswas, Farzana Begum, Leanne Unicomb, Stephen Luby, Alejandro Cravioto, John D Clemens

Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh with epidemics occurring each year. Our findings provide the first indication of the effect of delivering an oral killed whole-cell cholera vaccine to poor urban populations with endemic cholera using routine government services and will help policy makers to formulate vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of severely dehydrating cholera in such populations.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Visit Website
User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti
Kory Russel, Sebastien Tilmans, Sasha Kramer, Rachel Sklar, Daniel Tillias, Jenna Davis

Many residents of an impoverished Haitian neighborhood chose to pay for a new toilet technology, and gave it high ratings for safety, convenience and modernity. Sustainable systems to collect and treat sewage are practically non-existent throughout Haiti, according to the World Bank. Limited access to clean water and improved sanitation makes it easier for cholera and other diseases to spread. One alternative, a waterless toilet and waste collection service, may provide a significant health benefit in dense urban settings. But uptake of this new technology requires behavior change and a willingness to pay for the service. Meeting these requirements calls for strong user motivation. Urban residents participated in a trial of the new toilet technology and service developed by researchers from Stanford and the Haitian/American nongovernmental organization SOIL. Users gave the system high ratings for safety, convenience and modernity. And almost three out of four users who participated in the study chose to pay to continue the service, according to new research published in Environment & Urbanization.

Water, Sanitation and Health Latin America/Caribbean Friday, August 28, 2015 Visit Website
A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania
Timothy Julian, Amy Pickering

Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals’ interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). This study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Friday, August 21, 2015 Visit Website
Quantification of Human Norovirus GII on Hands of Mothers with Children Under the Age of Five Years in Bagamoyo, Tanzania
Mia Catharine Mattioli, Ali Boehm, Jenna Davis, Mwifadhi Mrisho

Research results suggest mothers' hands may be a source of norovirus exposure for children in households in Tanzania.

WASH and Development, Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Monday, July 6, 2015 Visit Website
Impact of Intensive Handwashing Promotion on Secondary Household Influenza-Like Illness in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial
Stephen Luby, P.K. Ram, M.A. DiVita, K. Khatun-e_Jannat, M. Islam, K. Krytus, E. Cercone, B. Sohel, M. Ahmend, A. Mahmud, Q. Rahman, M. Rahman, J. Yu, A. Brooks, E. Azziz-Baumgartner, A. Fry

After a household member became ill in rural Bangladesh, starting a handwashing promotion did not protect against influenza-like illness. This may be because behavior did not change quickly enough.

WASH and Development South Asia Thursday, June 11, 2015 Visit Website
Household-level risk factors for influenza among young children in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a case–control study
Saumil Doshi, Benjamin J. Silk, Dhiman Dutt, Moshtaq Ahmed, Adam L. Cohen, Thomas H. Taylor, W. Abdullah Brooks, Doli Goswami, Stephen Luby, Alicia M. Fry, Pavani K. Ram

We conducted a case–control study using existing active surveillance for respiratory illness. Handwashing with soap was practiced infrequently and was not associated with paediatric influenza in this community. Interventions aimed at crowded households may reduce influenza incidence in young children.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Monday, May 4, 2015 Visit Website