Publications Directory

Publications Directory

Malnutrition and conflict in East Africa: the impacts of resource variability on human security
Pedram Rowhani, Olivier Degomme, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Eric Lambin

This study used detailed spatio-temporal information extracted from wide-swath satellite data (MODIS) to examine the impact of interannual variability in ecosystems on malnutrition and armed conflict in East Africa while controlling for other natural and socio-economic factors. Results suggested that, in East Africa, increased levels of malnutrition were related to armed conflicts. They also showed the importance, in low-income countries, of local economic activity and accessibility to reduce the likelihood of malnutrition and insecurity.

Expanding Access , Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Thursday, August 19, 2010 Visit Website
The ripple effect: Biofuels, food security, and the environment
Rosamond Naylor, Adam J. Liska, Marshall Burke, Walter P. Falcon, Joanne C. Gaskell, Scott D. Rozelle, Kenneth G. Cassman

The potential impact of a large global expansion of biofuels production capacity on net food producers and consumers in low-income countries presents challenges for food policy planners and raises the question of whether sustainable development targets at a more general level can be reached. This paper looks at whether the biofuels boom will move extremely poor countries closer to or further from the Millennium Development Goals.

WASH and Development Other Saturday, August 7, 2010 Visit Website
Satellite evidence for yield growth opportunities in Northwest India
David Lobell, J. Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, Anna S. Lee

A satellite-based study of wheat yields in India, showing that proximity to irrigation canals is an important factor related to yields.

WASH and Development, Sustainable Service Models South Asia Tuesday, July 6, 2010 Visit Website
Water, Health & Development: Challenges and Solutions in the Developing World

Each year, diarrhea kills an estimated 1.8 million people worldwide, the vast majority children under the age of 5. What makes the problem especially tragic is that it is preventable.

Expanding Access Other Saturday, May 1, 2010
Hands, Water, and Health: Fecal Contamination in Tanzanian Communities with Improved, Non-Networked Water Supplies
Amy Pickering, Jenna Davis, Sarah P. Walters, Helena M. Horak, Daniel P. Keymer, Douglas Mushi, Rachelle Strickfaden, Joshua S. Chynoweth, Jessie Liu, Annalise Blum, Kirsten Rogers, Ali Boehm

This study measured levels of E. coli, fecal streptococci, and occurrence of the general Bacteroidales fecal DNA marker in source water, in stored water, and on hands in 334 households among communities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where residents use non-networked water sources. The results suggest that reducing fecal contamination on hands should be investigated as a strategy for improving stored drinking water quality and health among households using non-networked water supplies.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Friday, March 12, 2010 Visit Website
Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture
Wolfram Schlenker, David Lobell

An empirical analysis of the sensitivity of major staples in Africa to temperature and rainfall variations.

WASH and Development, Sustainable Service Models Sub-Saharan Africa Wednesday, February 10, 2010 Visit Website
Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results showed that hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Friday, January 1, 2010 Visit Website
Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel
Jennifer Burney, Lennart Woltering, Marshall Burke, Rosamond Naylor, Dov Pasternak

Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa, and finds that olar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies.

WASH and Development Sub-Saharan Africa Monday, December 14, 2009 Visit Website
Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano-Sahel
Jennifer Burney, Lennart Woltering, Marshall Burke, Rosamond Naylor, Dov Pasternak

This paper analyses case studies from a decade of drip irrigation projects in the Sudano-Sahel to reveal the importance of system design and organizational structure for smallholder irrigation success. An evaluation of a solar-powered drip irrigation project in rural northern Benin provides a controlled study of technology impacts which, together with the case studies, highlight the institutional requirements for project success and the ways in which the design of the technology itself can either bridge, or succumb to, instituional gaps.

Sustainable Service Models Sub-Saharan Africa Monday, December 14, 2009 Visit Website
Tsunami-induced groundwater salinization in southeastern India
Sophie Violettea, Gilles Boulicot, Steve Gorelick

On 26 December 2004, a northern Indonesia earthquake generated a tsunami that devastated coastal Indian Ocean regions. The impact of the tsunami on groundwater quality was unexpected as inundation and retreat of the tsunami wave lasted just 5 min. This study reports data showing salinization of the regionally extensive “Dune aquifer” in southeastern India and presents evidence that tsunami inundation resulted in contamination of groundwater supplies to approximately one quarter the salinity of seawater.

Sustainable Service Models South Asia Saturday, February 28, 2009 Visit Website
Our Daily Bread: Without public investment the food crisis will only get worse
Rosamond Naylor, Walter P. Falcon

During the eighteen months after January 2007, cereal prices doubled, setting off a world food crisis. Naylor and Falcon discuss this crisis in a lead article in the September/October 2008 issue of Boston Review. Without public investment, the food crisis will only get worse.

WASH and Development Other Monday, September 1, 2008
Satellite Monitoring of Yield Responses to Irrigation Practices across Thousands of Fields
David Lobell, J. Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio

An example of how satellite and water delivery data can be combined to understand optimal timing and amount of irrigation deliveries.

WASH and Development, Sustainable Service Models Other Tuesday, July 1, 2008 Visit Website
Reliable conjunctive use rules for sustainable irrigated agriculture and reservoir spill control
Gerrit Schoups, C. Lee Addams, Jose Luis Minjares, Steve Gorelick

This study developed optimal conjunctive use water management strategies that balance two potentially conflicting objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture during droughts and minimizing unnecessary spills and resulting water losses from the reservoir during wet periods.

Sustainable Service Models Latin America/Caribbean Thursday, December 14, 2006 Visit Website
Sustainable conjunctive water management in irrigated agriculture: Model formulation and application to the Yaqui Valley, Mexico
Gerrit Schoups, C. Lee Addams, Jose Luis Minjares, Steve Gorelick

This paper investigates strategies to alleviate the effects of droughts on the profitability and sustainability of irrigated agriculture. These strategies include conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater resources, and engineered improvements such as lining of irrigation canals and addition of regional pumping well capacity.

Sustainable Service Models Latin America/Caribbean Wednesday, October 18, 2006 Visit Website