Publications Directory

Publications Directory

Swimmer risk of gastrointestinal illness from exposure to tropical coastal waters contaminated with terrestrial runoff
Emily J. Viau, Debbie Lee, Ali Boehm

This study used molecular methods to measure concentrations of four enteric viruses (adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI, and norovirus GII) and fecal source tracking markers (human, ruminant, and pig Bacteroidales) in land-based runoff from 22 tropical streams on O’ahu, Hawai’i. Virus concentrations and culturable Salmonella and Campylobacter were used as inputs to a quantitative microbial risk assessment model to estimate the risk of acquiring gastrointestinal illness from swimming in tropical marine waters adjacent to discharging streams. The results of the study suggest land-based runoff in the tropics as a potential source of GI illness risk, with pathogens coming from both human and nonhuman nonpoint sources including septic tanks.

Water, Sanitation and Health North America Friday, July 22, 2011 Visit Website
The landscape epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in South Africa: A spatially-explicit multi-agent simulation
Elise Diona, Louis VanSchalkwyk, Eric Lambin

This study aimed at understanding how landscape heterogeneity influences outbreaks of contagious diseases in southern Africa. A multi-agent simulation was developed to represent the spatial and temporal dynamics of pathogens between human-livestock and wildlife interfaces at the fringe of large wildlife conservation areas. Results show that cattle–buffalo contacts mostly depend on the range of displacements of cattle and buffaloes, as influenced by the landscape configuration, and on the number of fence breakages multiplied by the time between breakage and repair.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Sunday, July 10, 2011 Visit Website
The Effect of Handwashing at Recommended Times with Water Alone and With Soap on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: An Observational Study
Stephen Luby, Halder AK, Huda T, Unicomb L, Johnston RB

This observational study was conducted in rural Bangladesh among low-income communities. The findings suggest that handwashing before preparing food is an important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and also that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea. This is the first study to find that handwashing with water alone can lead to health benefits.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Tuesday, June 28, 2011 Visit Website
Expanding the boundaries of agricultural development

This paper explores several ways in which the traditional field of agricultural development needs to expand to address the broader issues of international security and human welfare. It focuses on five key interrelated issues: the macroeconomic and energy contexts of agricultural development; climate change; deforestation, land access, and land markets; farming systems and technology for the ultra-poor; and food-health linkages with a specific focus on infectious disease.

WASH and Development Other Thursday, April 21, 2011 Visit Website
The Effects of Informational Interventions on Household Water Management, Hygiene Behaviors, Stored Drinking Water Quality, and Hand Contamination in Peri-Urban Tanzania
Jenna Davis, Amy Pickering, Kirsten Rogers, Simon Mamuya, Ali Boehm

This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Findings from this study suggest that additional work is needed to elucidate the conditions under which such testing represents a cost-effective strategy to motivate improved household water management and hand hygiene.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Saturday, January 1, 2011 Visit Website
Water supply services for Africa's urban poor: the role of resale
Valentina Zuin, Len Ortolano, Manuel Alvarinho, Kory Russel, Anne Thebo, Odete Muximpua , Jenna Davis

Water resale is often prohibited because of concerns about affordability and risks to public health. Using data collected from 1,377 households in Maputo, Mozambique, this study compares the microbiological quality, as well as the time and money costs of water supply from individual house connections, public standpipes, and water obtained from neighbors. Resale competes favorably with standpipes along a number of service quality dimensions; however, after controlling for water supply characteristics, households purchasing water from neighbors are significantly less likely to be satisfied with their water service as compared with those using standpipes.

Expanding Access Sub-Saharan Africa Saturday, January 1, 2011 Visit Website
Food security in an era of economic volatility
Rosamond Naylor, Walter P. Falcon

In this article, Naylor and Falcon delineate the nature and causes of recent food price volatility, gauge whether movements in world prices for the major cereal crops (maize, wheat, and rice) are good indicators of movements in food prices actually paid by poor households, and delve deeper into the question of how price instability affects food security among different groups in low-income countries. Three main factors distinguish food price volatility in the twenty-first century and underlie the authors' analysis: the important role of financial markets in determining international and domestic commodity prices; the new connection between agriculture and energy markets; and changes in agricultural trade policies that have caused some developing countries to rely more heavily than previously on trade in staples, and other to move toward self-sufficiency.

WASH and Development Other Wednesday, December 15, 2010 Visit Website
Bacterial hand contamination among Tanzanian mothers varies temporally and following household activities
Amy Pickering, Timothy R. Julian, Simon Mamuya, Ali Boehm, Jenna Davis

This study characterized the mechanisms of hand contamination with faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the presence of selected pathogens on mothers’ hands in Tanzania. The results showed that Escherichia coli and enterococci on hands can be significantly increased by various household activities, including those involving the use of soap and water. Thus, faecal indicator bacteria should be considered highly variable when used as indicators of handwashing behaviour.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Tuesday, November 23, 2010 Visit Website
Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity
Eric Lambin, Patrick Meyfroidt

This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities for preserving natural forest ecosystems while enhancing food production in tropical developing countries under conditions of scarcity of unused productive cropland and economic globalization. It does so by drawing on examples from a few developing countries that have succeeded in increasing simultaneously their forest cover and agricultural production. These successes suggest that designing policies to reconcile development with nature conservation requires understanding land change as part of global-scale, open systems.

WASH and Development Other Sunday, November 21, 2010 Visit Website
Pathogenic landscapes: Interactions between land, people, disease vectors, and their animal hosts
Eric Lambin, Annelise Tran, Sophie O Vanwambeke, Catherine Linard, Valérie Soti

This study presents a review of the key findings from eight case studies that the authors conducted in Europe and West Africa on the impact of land changes on emerging or re-emerging vector-borne diseases and/or zoonoses. The case studies concern West Nile virus transmission in Senegal, tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Latvia, sandfly abundance in the French Pyrenees, Rift Valley Fever in the Ferlo (Senegal), West Nile Fever and the risk of malaria re-emergence in the Camargue, and rodent-borne Puumala hantavirus and Lyme borreliosis in Belgium.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Wednesday, October 27, 2010 Visit Website
Malnutrition and conflict in East Africa: the impacts of resource variability on human security
Pedram Rowhani, Olivier Degomme, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Eric Lambin

This study used detailed spatio-temporal information extracted from wide-swath satellite data (MODIS) to examine the impact of interannual variability in ecosystems on malnutrition and armed conflict in East Africa while controlling for other natural and socio-economic factors. Results suggested that, in East Africa, increased levels of malnutrition were related to armed conflicts. They also showed the importance, in low-income countries, of local economic activity and accessibility to reduce the likelihood of malnutrition and insecurity.

Expanding Access , Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Thursday, August 19, 2010 Visit Website
The ripple effect: Biofuels, food security, and the environment
Rosamond Naylor, Adam J. Liska, Marshall Burke, Walter P. Falcon, Joanne C. Gaskell, Scott D. Rozelle, Kenneth G. Cassman

The potential impact of a large global expansion of biofuels production capacity on net food producers and consumers in low-income countries presents challenges for food policy planners and raises the question of whether sustainable development targets at a more general level can be reached. This paper looks at whether the biofuels boom will move extremely poor countries closer to or further from the Millennium Development Goals.

WASH and Development Other Saturday, August 7, 2010 Visit Website
Satellite evidence for yield growth opportunities in Northwest India
David Lobell, J. Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, Anna S. Lee

A satellite-based study of wheat yields in India, showing that proximity to irrigation canals is an important factor related to yields.

WASH and Development, Sustainable Service Models South Asia Tuesday, July 6, 2010 Visit Website
Water, Health & Development: Challenges and Solutions in the Developing World

Each year, diarrhea kills an estimated 1.8 million people worldwide, the vast majority children under the age of 5. What makes the problem especially tragic is that it is preventable.

Expanding Access Other Saturday, May 1, 2010
Hands, Water, and Health: Fecal Contamination in Tanzanian Communities with Improved, Non-Networked Water Supplies
Amy Pickering, Jenna Davis, Sarah P. Walters, Helena M. Horak, Daniel P. Keymer, Douglas Mushi, Rachelle Strickfaden, Joshua S. Chynoweth, Jessie Liu, Annalise Blum, Kirsten Rogers, Ali Boehm

This study measured levels of E. coli, fecal streptococci, and occurrence of the general Bacteroidales fecal DNA marker in source water, in stored water, and on hands in 334 households among communities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where residents use non-networked water sources. The results suggest that reducing fecal contamination on hands should be investigated as a strategy for improving stored drinking water quality and health among households using non-networked water supplies.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Friday, March 12, 2010 Visit Website

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