Publications Directory

Publications Directory

Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali.

Paper coauthored by WHD researcher Amy Pickering finds the level of community sanitation access for households in rural Mali was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health.

WASH and Development Sub-Saharan Africa Thursday, June 1, 2017 Visit Website
Occurrence of Host-Associated Fecal Markers on Child Hands, Household Soil, and Drinking Water in Rural Bangladeshi Households

Study coauthored by WHD researchers Alexandria Boehm, Stephen Luby and Amy Pickering finds evidence of widespread ruminant and avian fecal contamination in the rural Bangladesh households, and highlights the minimal effect of a sanitation intervention on household fecal contamination.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Thursday, October 13, 2016 Visit Website
Is pregnancy a teachable moment to promote handwashing with soap among primiparous women in rural Bangladesh?Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

Paper coauthored by WHD researcher Stephen Luby finds handwashing intervention among mothers of young children unable to improve hygiene practices, and points to need for study of influences on motivation.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Thursday, September 1, 2016 Visit Website
Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and visible light

Study coauthored by WHD researcher Alexandria Boehm highlights how a small amount of layered films can harvest light to achieve a nearly 100-percent inactivation of waterborne bacteria in 20 minutes.

Water, Sanitation and Health North America Monday, August 15, 2016 Visit Website
Soil-transmitted helminth eggs are present in soil at multiple locations within households in rural Kenya
Lauren Steinbaum, Sammy M Njenga, Jimmy Kihara, Ali Boehm, Jenna Davis, Clair Null, Amy Pickering

About 1.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms. We searched for intestinal worm eggs in soil in rural Kenyan households. We found them in places where household members could be exposed and infected. Read more to find out where.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Friday, June 24, 2016 Visit Website
Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa ‘‘Cool Foam’’ System in Kenya
Jaynie Whinnery, Gauthami Penakalapati, Rachel Steinacher, Noel Wilson, Clair Nul, Amy Pickering

Study involving development of innovative system that makes handwashing convenient and economical in areas without reliable piped water.

WASH and Development North Africa/Middle East Monday, June 20, 2016 Visit Website
Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old
Laura Kwong, Ayse Ercumen, Amy Pickering, Leanne Unicomb, Jenna Davis, Stephen Luby

Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We found that both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher for Bangladeshi compared to U.S. children.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Saturday, June 4, 2016 Visit Website
Field Trial of an Automated Batch Chlorinator System at Shared Water Points in an Urban Community of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Nuhu Amin, Yoshika S. Crider, Leanne Unicomb, Kishor K. Das, Partha Sarathi Gope, Zahid Hayat Mahmud, M Sirajul Islam, Jenna Davis, Stephen Luby, Amy Pickering

Research shows that a chlorinator that operates without electricity or moving parts kept chlorine and E. coli concentrations low in household stored drinking water.

WASH and Development South Asia Saturday, February 6, 2016 Visit Website
Hand-to-mouth contacts result in greater ingestion of feces than dietary water consumption in Tanzania: A quantitative fecal exposure assessment model
Mia Mattioli, Jenna Davis, Ali Boehm

Research model results show that Tanzanian children ingest a significantly greater amount of feces each day from hand-to-mouth contacts than from drinking water, which may help elucidate why interventions focused on water without also addressing hygiene often see little to no effect on reported incidence of diarrhea.

Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Tuesday, January 5, 2016 Visit Website
Oceans in Peril: Grand Challenges in Applied Water Quality Research for the 21st Century
Ali Boehm, Niveen Ismail, Lauren Sassoubre, Elizabeth Andruszkiewicz

Researchers describe ocean threats due to microbial, nutrient, chemical, and plastic pollution in addition to declining biodiversity and describe fundamental and applied research needed to mitigate the threats. Among the research needs: monitoring, fate and transport studies, modeling, innovative natural and engineered treatment systems, and toxicity and health studies.

WASH and Development Other Friday, December 18, 2015 Visit Website
Addressing Sanitation Services in Dense Urban Slums: A Container-Based Model
Kory Russel, Sebastien Tilmans, Rachel Sklar, Leah Page, Sasha Kramer, Daniel Tillias, Jenna Davis

Research findings indicate that Container-Based Sanitation can dramatically improve management of waste in otherwise hard-to-serve areas of developing countries while satisfying residents’ desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services.

Sustainable Service Models Latin America/Caribbean Friday, October 23, 2015
Better Sanitation without Subsidies: New Research Shows Childhood Stunting Diminishes With Community-Led Promotion of Latrines
Amy Pickering, Maria Laura Alzua, Carolina Lopez, Habiba Djebbari, Massa Coulibaly, Nicolas Osbert

This research brief is based on an analysis of a rural sanitation intervention trial in sub-Saharan Africa, and provides insights for decision-makers seeking to address sanitation development goals.

Expanding Access Sub-Saharan Africa Tuesday, October 20, 2015
Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates
Mi T. Nguyen, Justin T. Jasper, Ali Boehm, Kara Nelson

A pilot-scale open-water unit process wetland was monitored for one year and found to be effective in enhancing sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Differences in sunlight inactivation rates observed between pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci, as well as between lab-cultured and indigenous wastewater bacteria highlight the challenges of using FIB as model organisms for actual pathogens in natural sunlit environments.

Water, Sanitation and Health North America Thursday, October 15, 2015 Visit Website
Effect of a community-led sanitation intervention on child diarrhoea and child growth in rural Mali: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
Amy Pickering, Habiba Djebbari, Carolina Lopez, Massa Coulibaly, Maria Laura Alzua

New research published in The Lancet Global Health documents the first scientific trial to show that child growth improved when communities in the Republic of Mali participated in a community-led sanitation program. The research is co-authored by Amy Pickering, research associate with Stanford’s department of civil and environmental engineering.

Expanding Access , Water, Sanitation and Health Sub-Saharan Africa Tuesday, October 13, 2015 Visit Website
Feasibility and effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in an urban endemic setting in Bangladesh: a cluster randomised open-label trial
Firdausi Qadri, Mohammad Ali, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Amit Saha, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Yasmin A Begum, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Mohiul Islam Chowdhury, Md Jasim Uddin, Jahangir A M Khan, Atique Iqbal Chowdhury, Anisur Rahman, Shah Alam Siddique, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Afroza Akter, Arifuzzaman Khan, Young Ae You, Ashraf Uddin Siddik, Nirod Chandra Saha, Alamgir Kabir, Baizid Khoorshid Riaz, Shwapon Kumar Biswas, Farzana Begum, Leanne Unicomb, Stephen Luby, Alejandro Cravioto, John D Clemens

Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh with epidemics occurring each year. Our findings provide the first indication of the effect of delivering an oral killed whole-cell cholera vaccine to poor urban populations with endemic cholera using routine government services and will help policy makers to formulate vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of severely dehydrating cholera in such populations.

Water, Sanitation and Health South Asia Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Visit Website